An Unappreciated Way of Being
R. Rogers. Ph.D
[For authority to reproduce see here]
is my thesis in this paper that we should re-examine and re-evaluate that very
special way of being with another person which has been called empathic. I
believe we tend to give too little consideration to an element which is
extremely important both for the understanding of personality dynamics and for
effecting changes in personality and behaviour. It is one of the most delicate
and powerful ways we have of using ourselves. In spite of all that has been said
and written on this topic it is a way of being which is rarely seen in full
bloom in a relationship. I will start with my own somewhat faltering history in
relation to this topic.
early in my work as a therapist I discovered that simply listening to my client,
very attentively, was an important way of being helpful. So when I was in doubt
as to what I should do, in some active way, I listened. It seemed surprising to
me that such a passive kind of interaction could be so useful.
little later a social worker who had a background of Rankian training, helped me
to learn that the most effective approach was to listen for the feelings, the
emotions whose patterns could be discerned through the client's words. I believe
she was the one who suggested that the best response was to "reflect"
these feelings back to the client - "reflect" becoming in time a word
which made me cringe. But at that time it improved my work as therapist, and I
came my transition to a full-time university position where, with the help of
students, I was at last able to scrounge equipment for recording our interviews,
I cannot exaggerate the excitement of our learnings as we clustered about the
machine which enabled us to listen to ourselves, playing over and over some
puzzling point at which the interview clearly went wrong, or those moments in
which the client moved significantly forward. (I still regard this as the one
best way of learning to improve oneself as a therapist). Among many lessons from
those recordings, we came to realise that listening to feelings and
"reflecting" them was a vastly complex process. We discovered that we
could pinpoint the therapist response which caused a fruitful flow of
significant expression to become superficial and unprofitable. Likewise we were
able to spot the remark which turned a client's dull and desultory talk into a
such a context of learning it became quite natural to lay more stress upon the
content of the therapist response than upon the empathic quality of the
listening. To this extent we became heavily conscious of the techniques which
the counsellor or therapist was using. We became expert in analysing, in every
minute detail, the ebb and flow of the process in each interview, and gained a
great deal from that microscopic study.
this tendency to focus on the therapist's responses had consequences which
appalled me. I had met hostility, but these reactions were worse. The whole
approach came, in a few years, to be known as a technique. "Nondirective
therapy", it was said, "is the technique of reflecting the client's
feelings." Or an even worse caricature was simply that, "In
nondirective therapy you repeat the last words the client has said." I was
so shocked by these complete distortions of our approach that for a number of
years I said almost nothing about empathic listening, and when I did it was to
stress an empathic attitude, with little comment as to how this might be
implemented in the relationship. I preferred to discuss the qualities of
positive regard and therapeutic congruence, which together with empathy I
hypothesised as promoting the therapeutic process. They too were often
misunderstood, but at least not caricatured.
the years, however, the research evidence keeps piling up, and it points
strongly to the conclusion that a high degree of empathy in a relationship is
possibly the most potent and certainly one of the most potent factors in
bringing about change and learning. And so I believe it is time for me to forget
the caricatures and misrepresentations of the past and take a fresh look at
still another reason it seems likely to do this. In the United States during the
past decade or two many new approaches to therapy have held centre stage.
Gestalt therapy, psycho-drama, primal therapy, bio-energetics, rational-emotive
therapy, transactional analysis, are some of the best known, but there are more.
Part of their appeal lies in the fact that in most instances the therapist is
clearly the expert actively manipulating the situation, often in dramatic ways,
for the client's benefit. If I read the signs correctly I believe there is a
decrease in the fascination with such expertise in guidance. With another
approach based on expertise, behaviour therapy, I believe interest and
fascination are still on the increase. A technological society has been
delighted to have found a technology by which a man's behaviour can be shaped,
even without his knowledge or approval, towards goals selected by the therapist,
or by society. Yet even here such questioning by thoughtful individuals is
springing up as the philosophical and political implications of "behaviour
mod" become more clearly visible. So I have seen a willingness on the part
of many to take another look at ways of being with people which evoke
self-directed change, which locate power in the person, not the expert, and this
brings me again to examine carefully what we mean by empathy and what we have
come to know about it. Perhaps the time is ripe for its value to be appreciated.
definitions have been given of the term and I myself have set forth several.
More than twenty years ago (though not published until 1959) I attempted to give
a highly rigorous definition as a part of a formal statement of my concepts and
theory. It went as follows. "The state of empathy, or being empathic, is to
perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the
emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the
person, but without ever losing the 'as if' condition. Thus it means to sense
the hurt or the pleasure of another as he senses it and to perceive the causes
thereof as he perceives them, but without ever losing the recognition that it is
as if I were hurt or pleased and so forth. If this 'as if' quality is lost, then
the state is one of identification." (Rogers, 1959 pp. 210-211. See also
as a Useful Construct
formulate a current description I would want to draw on the concept of
experiencing as formulated by Gendlin (1962). This concept has enriched our
thinking in various ways as will be evident in this paper. Briefly it is his
view that at all times there is going on in the human organism a flow of
experiencings to which the individual can turn again and again as a referent in
order to discover the meaning of his experience. He sees empathy as pointing
sensitively to the "felt meaning" which the client is experiencing in
this particular moment, in order to help him focus on that meaning and to carry
it further to its full and uninhibited experiencing.
example may make more clear both the concept and its relation to empathy. A man
in an encounter group has been making vaguely negative statements about his
father. The facilitator says, "It sounds as though you might be angry at
your father". He replies "No, I don't think so." "Possibly
dissatisfied with him?" "Well, yes, perhaps," (said rather
doubtfully). "Maybe you're disappointed in him". Quickly the man
responds, "That's it! I am disappointed that he's not a strong person. I
think I've always been disappointed in him ever since I was a boy.
what is the man checking these terms for their correctness? Gendlin's view, with
which I concur, is that he is checking them against the ongoing
psycho-physiological flow within himself to see if they fit. This flow is a very
real thing, and people are able to use it as a referent. In this case
"angry" doesn't match the felt meaning at all;
"dissatisfied" comes closer but is not really correct:
"disappointed" matches it exactly, and encourages a further flow of
the experiencing as often happens.
this conceptual background, let me attempt a description of empathy which would
seem satisfactory to me today. I would no longer be terming it a "state of
empathy," because I believe it to be a process, rather than a state.
Perhaps I can capture that quality.
way of being with another person which is termed empathic has several facets. It
means entering the private perceptual world of the other and becoming thoroughly
at home in it. It involves being sensitive, moment to moment, to the changing
felt meanings which flow in this other person, to the fear or rage or tenderness
or confusion or whatever, that he/she is experiencing. It means temporarily
living in his/her life, moving about in it delicately without making judgments,
sensing meanings of which he/she is scarcely aware, but not trying to uncover
feelings of which the person is totally unaware, since this would be too
threatening. It includes communicating your sensings of his/her world as you
look with fresh and unfrightened eyes at elements of which the individual is
fearful. It means frequently checking with him/her as to the accuracy of your
sensings, and being guided by the responses you receive. You are a confident
companion to the person in his/her inner world. By pointing to the possible
meanings in the flow of his/her experiencing you help the person to focus on
this useful type of referent, to experience the meanings more fully, and to move
forward in the experiencing.
be with another in this way means that for the time being you lay aside the
views and values you hold for yourself in order to enter another's world without
prejudice. In some sense it means that you lay aside your self and this can only
be done by a person who is secure enough in himself that he knows he will not
get lost in what may turn out to be the strange or bizarre world of the other,
and can comfortably return to his own world when he wishes.
this description makes clear that being empathic is a complex demanding, strong
yet subtle and gentle way of being.
foregoing description is hardly an operational description, suitable for use in
research. Yet such operational definitions have been formulated and widely used.
There is the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory, to be filled out by the
parties to the relationship, in which empathy is defined operationally by the
items used. Some of the items from this instrument, indicating the range from
empathic to non-empathic, follow.
appreciates what my experience feels like to me
understands what I say from a detached, objective point of view.
understands my words but not the way I feel.
also has a specific conceptual formulation of empathy upon which he based his
items. While it definitely overlaps with the definition given it is sufficiently
different to warrant its quotation.
it (empathic understanding) is an active process of desiring to know the full,
present and changing awareness of another person, of reaching out to receive his
communication and meaning, and of translating his words and signs into
experienced meaning and matches at least those aspects of his awareness that are
most important to him at the moment. It is an experiencing of the consciousness
'behind' another's outward communication, but with continuous awareness that
this consciousness is originating and proceeding in the other". (Barrett-Lennard
there is the Accurate Empathy Scale, devised by Truax and others for use by
raters (Truax, 1967). Even small portions of recorded interviews can be reliably
rated by this scale. The nature of the scale may be indicated by giving the
definition of Stage 1, which is the lowest level of empathic understanding, and
Stage 8, which is a very high (though not the highest) degree of empathy. Here
is Stage 1. "Therapist seems completely unaware of even the most
conspicuous of the client's feelings. His responses are not appropriate to the
mood and content of the client's feelings. His responses are not appropriate to
the mood and content of the client's statements and there is no determinable
quality of empathy, hence: no accuracy whatsoever, The therapist may be bored
and disinterested or actively offering advice, but he is not communicating an
awareness of the client's current feelings." (Truax 1967, pp. 556-7)
8 is defined as follows. "Therapist accurately interprets all the client's
present acknowledged feelings. He also uncovers the most deeply shrouded of the
client's feeling areas, voicing meanings in the client's experience of which the
client is scarcely aware. He moves into feelings and experiences that are only
hinted at by the client and does so with sensitivity and accuracy. The content
that comes to life may be new but it is not alien. While the therapist in Stage
8 makes mistakes, mistakes do not have a jarring note but are covered by the
tentative character of the response. Also the therapist is sensitive to his
mistakes and quickly alters or changes his responses in midstream, indicating
that he more clearly knows what is being talked about and what is being sought
after in the client's own explorations. The therapist reflects a togetherness
with the patient in tentative trial and error exploration. His voice tone
reflects the seriousness and depth of his empathic grasp." (Truax 1967, p.
have wished to indicate by these examples that the empathic process can be
defined in theoretical, conceptual, subjective and operational ways. Even so, We
have not reached the limits of its base.
Definition for Contemporary Persons
Gendlin and others have recently been involved in a helping community enterprise
called "Changes" which has many implications for dealing with the
alienated and counter-culture members of the chaos which we call urban living.
Of particular interest here is the "Rap Manual" which has been
developed to aid the ordinary person in learning "how to help with the
other person's process".
manual starts out with a section on "Absolute Listening". Some
excerpts give the flavour. "This is not laying trips on people ... you only
listen and say back the other person's thing, step by step, just as that person
seems to have it at that moment. You never mix into it any of your things or
ideas, never lay on the other person anything that person didn't express ... To
show that you understand exactly, make a sentence or two which gets exactly at
the personal meaning this person wanted to put across. This might be in your own
words, usually but use that person's own words for the touchy main things."
(Gendlin & Hendricks, undated.) It continues in this same vein, with many
detailed suggestions, including ideas on "How to know when you're doing it
it seems clear that an empathic way of being, though highly subtle conceptually,
can also be described in terms which are perfectly understandable by
contemporary youth, or citizens of a beleaguered inner city. It is a broad
have we come to know about empathy through research based on the instruments
mentioned above, and others which have been devised? The answer is that we have
learned a great deal and I will try to present some of these learnings, giving
first some of the general findings which are of Interest. I will reserve until
later an analysis of the effects of an empathic climate on the dynamics and
behaviour of the recipient, Here then are some of the general statements which
can be made with assurance.
ideal therapist is first of all empathic. When psychotherapists of many
different orientations describe their concept of the ideal therapist, the
therapist they would like to become, they are in high agreement in giving
empathy the highest ranking out of twelve variables. This statement is based on
a study By Raskin (1974) of 83 practising therapists of at least eight different
therapeutic approaches, The definition of the empathic quality was very similar
to that used in this paper. This study corroborates and strengthens an earlier
research by Fiedler (1950). So we may conclude that therapists recognise that
the most important factor in being a therapist is "trying, as sensitively
and as accurately as he can, to understand the client, from the latter's own
point of view", (Raskin, 1974).
is correlated with self-exploration and process movement. It has been learned
that a relationship climate with a high degree of empathy is associated with
various aspects of process and progress in the therapy. Such a climate is
definitely related to a high degree of self-exploration in the client (Bergin
& Strupp, 1972; Kurtz & Grummon, 1972; Tausch, Bastine, Friese &
early in the relationship predicts later success. The degree of empathy which
exists and will exist in the relationship can be determined very early, in the
fifth or even the second interview, Such early measurements are predictive of
the later success or lack of success in therapy (Barrett-Lennard, 1962; Tausch,
1973). The implication of these findings is that we could avoid a great deal of
unsuccessful therapy, by measuring the therapist's empathy early on.
client comes to perceive more empathy in successful cases. In successful cases
the client's perception of the empathic quality in the relationship, and that
quality as rated by objective judges, increase over time, although the increase
is not very great (Cartwright & Lerner, 1966; Van Der Veen, 1970).
is provided by the therapist, not drawn from him. We know that empathy is
something offered by the therapist, and not simply elicited by some particular
type of client (Tausch, at al., 1970; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967). There have
been speculations to the contrary, that an appealing or seductive client might
be responsible far drawing understanding from the therapist. The evidence does
not support this. indeed, the degree of empathy in a relationship can be rather
accurately inferred simply by listening to the therapist responses, without any
knowledge of the client's statements (Quinn. 1953). So if an empathic climate
exists in a relationship, the probability is high that the therapist is
more experienced the therapist, the more likely he is to be empathic.
Experienced therapists offer a higher degree of empathy to their clients than
less experienced, whether we are assessing this quality through the client's
perception or through the ears of qualified judges (Barrett-Lennard, 1962;
Fiedler, 1949, 1950; Mullen & Abeles, 1972.) Evidently therapists do learn,
as the years go by, to come closer to their ideal of a therapist, and to be more
is a special quality in a relationship, and therapists offer definitely more of
it than even helpful friends (Van Der Veen, 1970). This is reassuring.
better integrated the therapist is within himself, the higher the degree of
empathy he exhibits. Personality disturbance in the therapist goes along with a
lower empathic understanding, but when he is free from discomfort and confident
in interpersonal relationships, he offers more of understanding (Bergin &
Jasper, 1969; Bergin & Solomon, 1970). As I have considered this evidence,
and also my own experience in the training of therapists. I come to the somewhat
uncomfortable conclusion that the more psychologically mature and integrated the
therapist is as a person, the more helpful is the, relationship he provides.
This puts a heavy demand on the therapist as a person.
therapists often fall far short of being empathic. In spite of what has been
said of experienced therapists, they differ sharply in the degree of empathy
they offer. Raskin (1974) showed that when the recorded interviews of six
experienced therapists were rated by other experienced therapists, the
differences on twelve variables were significant at the .001 level, and empathy
was second in the extent of difference, The outstanding characteristic of the
was his empathy. Other approaches have as their outstanding characteristic their
cognitive quality, or therapist-directedness, and the like. So, though
therapists regarded empathic listening as the most important element in their
ideal, in their actual practice they often fall far short of this. In fact the
ratings of the recorded interviews of these six expert therapists by 83 other
therapists came up with a surprising finding.
only two cases did the work of the experts correlate positively with the
description of the ideal therapist. In four cases the correlation was negative,
the most extreme being a -.66! So much for therapy as it is practised!
are better judges of the degree of empathy than are therapists. Perhaps then it
is not too surprising that therapists prove to be rather inaccurate in assessing
their own degree of empathy in a relationship. The client's perception of this
quality agrees rather well with that of unbiased judges listening to the
recordings, But the agreement between clients and therapists, or judges and
therapists, is low (Rogers, Gendlin, Kiesler & Truax, 1967, Chs. 5 8).
Perhaps, if we wished to become better therapists, we should let our clients
tell us whether we are understanding them accurately!
and diagnostic perceptiveness are unrelated to empathy. It is important to know
that the degree to which the therapist creates an empathic climate is not
related to his academic performance or intellectual competence (Bergin &
Jasper, 1969; Bergin & Solomon, 1970). Neither is it related to the accuracy
of his perception of the individual or his diagnostic competence. In fact it may
be negatively related to the latter (Fiedler, 1952). This is a most important
finding. If neither academic brilliance nor diagnostic skill is significant,
then clearly an empathic quality belongs in a different realm of discourse from
most clinical thinking - psychological and psychiatric. I believe we are
reluctant to accept the implications.
empathic way of being can be learned from empathic persons. Perhaps the most
important statement of all is that the ability to be accurately empathic is
something which can be developed by training. Therapists, parents, and teachers
can be helped to become empathic, This is especially likely to occur if their
teachers and supervisors are themselves individuals of sensitive understanding (Aspy,
1972; Aspy & Roebuck, 1975; Bergin & Solomon, 1970; Blocksma, 1951;
Guerney, Andronica & Guerney, 1970). It is most encouraging to know that
this subtle, elusive quality, of utmost importance in therapy, is not something
one is "born with" but can be learned, and learned most rapidly in an
empathic climate. Perhaps only two basic elements of therapeutic effectiveness
can profit from cognitive and experiential training: empathy and congruence.
The Consequences of an Empathic Climate.
much for the knowledge which has been gained about empathy. But what effects do
a series of deeply empathic responses have upon the recipient? Here the evidence
is quite overwhelming.
is clearly related to positive outcome. From schizophrenic patients to pupils in
ordinary classrooms; from clients of a counselling centre to teachers in
training; from neurotics in Germany to neurotics in the United States, the
evidence is the same, and it indicates that the more the therapist or teacher is
sensitively understanding, the more likely is constructive learning and change (Aspy,
1972, Ch. 4: Aspy & Roebuck, 1975; Barret - Lennard, 1962; Bergin &
Jasper, 1969; Bergin & Strupp, 1972; Halkides, 1958; Kurtz & Grummon,
1972; Mullen & Abeles, 1971; Rogers et al., 1967, Chs. 5.9; Tausch, Bastine,
Bommert, Minsel & Nickel, 1972; Tausch, et al., 1970; Truax, 1966) As stated
by Bergin & Strupp (1972) various studies "demonstrate a positive
correlation between therapist empathy, patient self-exploration, and independent
criteria of patient change" (p. 25).
I believe far too little attention has been given these findings. This
deceptively simply empathic interaction which we have been discussing has many
and profound consequences. I want to discuss these at some length.
the first place, it dissolves alienation. For the moment, at least, the
recipient finds himself/herself a connected part of the human race. Though it
may not be articulated clearly, the experience goes something like this. "I
have been talking about hidden things, partly veiled even from myself, feelings
that are strange, possibly abnormal, feelings I have never communicated to
another, nor even clearly to myself. And yet he has understood, understood them
even more clearly than I do. If he knows what I am talking about, what I mean,
then to this degree I am not so strange, or alien, or set apart. I make sense to
another human being. So I am in touch with, even in relationship with, others. I
am no longer an isolate."
this explains one of the major findings of our study of psychotherapy with
schizophrenics. We found that those patients receiving from their therapists a
high degree of accurate empathy as rated by unbiased judges, showed the sharpest
reduction in schizophrenic pathology as measured by the MMPI (Rogers at al.
1967, p 85). This suggests that the sensitive understanding by another may have
been the most potent element in bringing the schizophrenic out of his
estrangement and into the world of relatedness. Jung has said that the
schizophrenic ceases to be schizophrenic when he meets someone by whom he feels
understood. Our study provides empirical evidence in support of that statement.
studies, both of schizophrenics and of counselling centre clients, show that low
empathy is related too a slight worsening in adjustment or pathology. Here too
the findings make sense. It is as if the individual concludes "If no one
understands me, if no one can grasp what these experiences are like, then I am
indeed in a bad way - more abnormal than I thought." One of Laing's
patients states this vividly in describing earlier contacts with psychiatrists:
"It's a most terrifying feeling to realise that the doctor can't see the
real you, that he can't understand what you feel and that he's just going ahead
with his own ideas. I would start to feel that I was invisible or maybe not
there at all" (Laing, 1965, p. 166.)
meaning of empathic understanding to the recipient is that someone values him,
cares, accepts the person that he is. It might seem that we have here stepped
into another area, and that we are no longer speaking of empathy. But this is
not so. It is impossible accurately to sense the perceptual world of another
person unless you value that person and his world - unless you in some sense
care. Hence the message comes through to the recipient that "this other
individual trusts me, thinks I'm worthwhile. Perhaps I am worth something.
Perhaps I could value myself. Perhaps I could care for myself."
vivid example of this comes from a young man who has been a recipient of much
sensitive understanding, and who is now in the later stages of his therapy.
I could even conceive of it as a possibility that I could have a kind of
tender concern for me ... Still, how could I be tender, be concerned for myself,
when they' re one and the same thing? But yet I can feel it so clearly ... You
know, like taking care of a child, You want to give it this and give it that....
I can kind of clearly see the purposes for somebody else ... but I can never see
them for....myself, that I could do this for me, you know. Is it possible that I
can really want to take care of myself, and make that a major purpose of my
life? That means I'd have to deal with the whole world as if I were guardian of
the most cherished and most wanted possession, that this I was between this
precious me that I wanted to take care of and the real world ... It's almost as
if I loved myself - you know - that's strange - but it's true.
It seems such a strange concept to realise. It would mean 'I would face
the world as though a part of my primary responsibility was taking care of this
precious individual who is me - whom I love.'
Whom I care for - whom I feel so close to. Woof! That's another strange
It just seems weird.
Yeah, It hits rather close somehow, The idea of my loving me and the
taking care of me. (His eyes grow moist,) That's a very nice One - very
is, I believe, the therapist's caring understanding - exhibited in this excerpt
as well as previously which has permitted this client to experience a high
regard, even a love, for himself.
another impact of a sensitive understanding comes from its nonjudgmental
quality. The highest expression of empathy is accepting and nonjudgmental, This
is true because it is impossible to be accurately perceptive of another's inner
world, if you have formed an evaluative opinion of him. If you doubt this
statement choose someone you know with whom you disagree, and who is in your
judgement definitely wrong or mistaken. Now try to state his views, beliefs,
feelings, so accurately that he will agree that this is a sensitively correct
description of his stance. I predict that nine times out of ten you will fail,
because your judgment of his views creeps into your description of them.
true empathy is always free of any evaluative or diagnostic quality. This comes
across to the recipient with some surprise. "If I am not being judged,
perhaps I am not so evil or abnormal as I have thought. perhaps I don't have to
judge myself so harshly." Thus gradually the possibility of self-acceptance
comes to mind a psychologist whose interest in psychotherapy started as a result
of his research in visual perception. In this research many students were
interviewed and asked to relate their visual and perceptual history, including
any difficulties in seeing, in reading, their reaction to wearing glasses, etc.
The psychologist simply listened with interest, made no judgments on what he was
hearing, and completed the gathering of his data. To his amazement, a number of
these students returned spontaneously to thank him for all the help he had given
them. He had, in his opinion, given them no help at all. But it forced him to
recognise that interested, non-evaluative listening was a potent therapeutic
force, even when directed at a narrow sector of life, and when there was no
intent of being helpful.
another way of putting some of what I have been saying is that a finely tuned
understanding by another individual gives the recipient his personhood, his
identity. Laing (1965) has said that the sense of identity requires the
existence of another by whom one is known" (p. 139). Buber has also spoken
of the need to have our existence confirmed by another. Empathy gives that
needed confirmation that one does exist as a separate, valued person with an
us turn to a more specific result of an interaction in which the individual
feels understood. He finds himself revealing material he has never communicated
before, and in the process he discovers a previously unknown element in himself.
Such an element may be "I never knew before that I was angry at my
father," or "I never realised that I am afraid of succeeding."
Such discoveries are unsettling but exciting. To perceive a new aspect of
oneself is the first step toward changing the concept of oneself. The new
element is, in an understanding atmosphere, owned and assimilated into a now
altered self-concept. This is the basis, in my estimation, of the behaviour
changes which can come about as a result of psycho-therapy. Once the
self-concept changes, behaviour changes to match the freshly perceived self.
we think, however, that empathy is effective only in the one-to-one relationship
we call psychotherapy, we are greatly mistaken. Even in the classroom it makes
an important difference. When the teacher shows evidence that he/she understands
the meaning of classroom experiences for the student, learning improves. In
studies made by Aspy and colleagues, it was found that children's reading
improved significantly more when teachers exhibited a high degree of
understanding than in classrooms where such understanding did not exist. This
finding has been replicated in many classrooms. (Aspy 1972, Ch. 4: Aspy &
Roebuck 1975). Just as the client in psychotherapy finds that empathy provides a
climate for learning more of himself, so the student in the classroom finds
himself in a climate for learning subject matter, when he is in the presence of
an understanding teacher.
far I have spoken of the more obvious change-producing effects of empathy. I
should like to turn to an aspect having to do with the dynamics of personality.
I will make several brief statements and then endeavour to explain their meaning
a person is perceptively understood, he finds himself coming in closer touch
with a wider range of his experiencing. This gives him an expanded referent to
which he can turn for guidance in understanding himself and in directing his
behaviour. If the empathy has been accurate and deep, he may also be unable to
unblock a flow of experiencing and permit it to run its uninhibited course.
is meant by these statements? I believe they will be clearer if I present an
excerpt from a recorded interview with a woman in the later stages of therapy.
This is an excerpt I have used previously, but it is particularly appropriate
Oak, a middle-aged woman, is exploring ... some of the complex feelings that
have been troubling her.
I have the feeling it isn't guilt. (Pause. She weeps.) Of course, I mean,
I can't verbalise it yet. (Then, with a rush of emotion.) It's just being
Mm-hmm. It isn't guilt except in the sense of being very much wounded
(weeping) It's you know, often I've been guilty of it myself, but in
later years when I've heard parents say to their children, 'Stop crying,' I've
had a feeling, a hurt, as though, well why should they tell them to stop crying?
They feel sorry for themselves, and who can feel more adequately sorry for
himself than the child. Well, that is sort of what I mean, as though I mean, I
thought that they should let him cry. And ... feel sorry for him too, maybe. In
a rather objective kind of way. Well, that's ... that's something of the kind of
things I've been experiencing, I mean, now - just right now. And in - in -
That catches a little more of the flavour of the feeling, that it's
almost as if you're really weeping for yourself.
Yeah. And again you see there's conflict. Our culture is such that ... I
mean, I feel it doesn't quite have that connotation. It may have.
You sort of think there is a cultural objection to feeling sorry about
yourself. And yet you feel the feeling you're experiencing isn't quite what the
culture objects to either.
And then of course, I've came to ... to see and to feel that over this -
see, I've covered it up. (Weeps). But I've covered it up with so much
bitterness, which in turn I had to cover up. (Weeping). That's what I want to
get rid of! I almost don't care if I hurt.
(Softly, and with an empathic tenderness toward the hurt she is
experiencing.) You feel that here at the basis of it as you experience it, is a
feeling of real tears for yourself. But that you can't show, mustn't show, so
that's been covered by bitterness that you don't like, that you'd like to be rid
of. You almost feel you'd rather absorb the hurt than to - than to feel the
bitterness. (Pause) And what you seem to be saying quite strongly is, I do hurt,
and I've tried to cover it up.
I didn't know it.
Mm-hmmm. Like a new discovery really.
(Speaking at the same time) I never really did know. But it's - you know,
it's almost a physical thing. It's - it's sort of as though I were looking
within myself at all kinds of - nerve endings and bits of things that have been
sort of mashed. (Weeping).
As though some of the most delicate aspects of you, physically almost,
have been crushed or hurt.
Yes, and you know, I do get the feeling, 'Oh you poor thing."
it is clear that empathic therapist responses encourage her in the wider
exploration of, and closer acquaintance with, the visceral experiencing going on
within. She is learning to listen to her guts, to use an inelegant term. She has
expanded her knowledge of the flow of her experiencing.
too, we see how this unverbalised visceral flow is used as a referent. How does
she know that "guilt" is not the word to describe her feeling? By
turning within, taking another look at this reality, this palpable process which
is taking place, this experiencing, And so she can test the word
"hurt" against this referent and finds it closer, Only when she tries
on the phrase "Oh, you poor thing", does it really fit the inner felt
meaning of compassion and sorrow for herself. In my judgment she has not only
used this aspect of her experiencing as a referent, but has learned something
about this process of checking with her total physiological being - a learning
she can apply again and again. And empathy has helped to make it possible.
can also find in this slice of therapy what it means to let an experiencing run
its course. This is clearly not a new feeling. She has often felt it before, yet
it has never been lived out. It has been blocked in same way. I am quite clear
as to the reality and vividness of the unblocking which follows, because I have
many times been a party to its occurrence, but I am not sure how it may best be
described. It seems to me that only when a gut level experience is fully
accepted, and accurately labelled in awareness, can it be completed. Then the
person can move beyond it. Again it is a sensitively empathic climate which
helps to move the experiencing forward to its conclusion, which in this case is
the uninhibited experiencing of the pity she feels for herself,
wish now to back off and give a rather different perspective on the significance
of empathy. We can say that when a person finds himself sensitively and
accurately understood, he develops a set of growth-promoting or therapeutic
attitudes toward himself. Let me explain. (1) The non evaluative and accepting
quality of the empathic climate enables him, as we have seen, to take a prizing,
caring attitude toward himself.
Being listened to by an understanding person makes it possible for him to listen
more accurately to himself, with greater empathy toward his own visceral
experiencing, his own vaguely felt meanings. But (3) his greater understanding
of, and prizing of, himself opens up to him new facets of experience which
become a part of a more accurately based self, His self is now more congruent
with his experiencing. Thus he has become, in his attitudes toward himself, more
caring and accepting, more empathic and understanding, more real and congruent.
But these three elements are the very ones which both experience and research
indicate are the attitudes of an effective therapist. So we are perhaps not
overstating the total picture if we say that an empathic understanding by
another has enabled the person to become a more effective growth enhancer, a
more effective therapist for himself.
whether we are functioning as therapists, as encounter group facilitators, as
teachers or as parents, we have in our hands, if we are able to take an empathic
stance, a powerful force for change and growth. Its strength needs to be
I want to put all that I have said into a larger context. Because I have been
speaking only of the empathic process, it may seem that I regard it as the only
important factor in growthful relationships. I would not wish to leave that
impression. I would like briefly to state my views as to the significance of
what I see as the three attitudinal elements making for growth, in their
relationship to one another.
the ordinary interactions of life - between marital and sex partners, between
teacher and student, employer and employee, or between colleagues it is probable
that congruence is the most important element. Such genuineness involves letting
the other person know "where you are" emotionally. It may involve
confrontation, and the personally owned and straightforward expression of both
negative and positive feelings. Thus congruence is a basis for living together
in a climate of realness.
in certain other special situations, caring or prizing may turn out to be the
most significant. Such situations include non-verbal relationships - parent and
infant, therapist and mute psychotic, physician and very ill patient. Caring is
an attitude which is known to foster creativity - a nurturing climate in which
delicate, tentative near thoughts and productive processes can emerge.
in my experience, there are other situations in which the empathic way of being
has the highest priority. When the other person is hurting, confused. troubled,
anxious, alienated, terrified; or when he or she is doubtful of self-worth,
uncertain as to identity, then understanding is called for. The gentle and
sensitive companionship of an empathic stance - accompanied of course by the
other two attitudes - provides illumination and healing. In such situations deep
understanding is, I believe, the most precious gift one can give to another.
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Ransom Rogers, an American psychologist, lived from 1902 to 1987. He trained at Teachers College,
Columbia University (Ph.D., 1931), and directed a children's agency in New York
before taking teaching positions at various universities. In 1963 he helped
found an institute for the study of the person in La Jolla, California. He is
known as the originator of client-centred
psychotherapy, and he helped establish humanistic
psychology. His writings include Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942),
Client-Centered Therapy (1951), Psychotherapy and Personality Change
(1954), and On Becoming a Person (1961).
for the Centre for Studies of the Person at La Jolla, California, as a draft for
private circulation only, and made available thanks to the free resources of the
Elements U.K. website. http://www.elementsuk.com/freeres.htm