(Click on the title to be taken to the review, or reviewer's name for biodata, or simply scroll down the page)

Nobody Home: From Belief to Clarity  by Jan Kersschot - Reviewer Stephen Bray 

Golden Hours - Games for Groups by Thomas Moloney - Reviewer Julie Hay

Coaching Made Easy by Mike Leibling and Robin Prior - Reviewer Julie Hay

Language Evolution, Edited by Morten H. Christiansen and Simon Kirby - Reviewer Joe Sinclair

British Politics by Tony Wright - Reviewer Melissa Biro

Brief Gestalt Therapy by Gaie Houston - Reviewer Mike Baynes

Whispering in the Wind by Carmen Bostic St. Clare and John Grinder - Reviewer Stephen Bray



Nobody Home: From Belief to Clarity by Jan Kersschot.  Watkins  Publishing, London, 2003, 
177 pages including notes and references.  ISBN 1-84293-062-1.  Price US$16.95 (Amazon price in sterling is 9.55)

This work is a well-written primer for those approaching the philosophy of Non-duality, (Avaida). The author studied medicine at Antwerp University and has practised natural medicine in Belgium since 1986. His interest in spirituality led him to the Eastern tradition including Zen Buddhism, Tantra and Avaida Vedanta. 

And this is exactly my criticism of the work, for throughout the writing is an implied presumption that like the author, we the readers are concerned solely with Spiritual Enlightenment. 

The book then proceeds to demolish the myth that there is anything necessary for us to do in order to be enlightened, since we are already the presence upon which life projects itself, regardless of whether we identify ourselves with our individual egos, or not. 

But the people that I come across tend to be  concerned rather with the more concrete issues of life than a spiritual search. They stress themselves with how to acquire wealth, how to maintain their marriages, or how to enable their children to become healthy and successful. The book fails to address all of these issues explicitly. 

To my mind the book would benefit enormously from the deletion of the words Spiritual, Spirituality, or Spiritually from the text. Nothing would be lost as a result of the deletions and immediately the book would develop a more focussed pattern. After all for a book that espouses the opinion that we have nothing Spiritual to seek, it spends a great deal of time discussing spirituality. 

It is rather like the physicist who in lecturing on post Cartesian science begins by explicating in detail just what Cartesian science is all about. The result is that the listeners have a good idea about Cartesian science, and only scant impressions of the post Cartesian model. 

Those who have read the authors earlier work; Coming Home should be cautioned that Nobody Home is virtually the same book with the omission of some interviews. Notable among these is the interview with Douglas Harding the author of On Having No Head. Fortunately many of Hardings experiments in locating awareness have been retained and are illustrated in simple but effective line drawings. 

The book is enjoyable, and for those who believe in a path to enlightenment through so called spiritual practices it is to be recommended for its remedial properties. 

It has been excellently produced by Watkins Publishing, which is the publishing arm of Watkins Bookstore in London who provide a superbly personal service by phone or Internet. 

Stephen J.M. Bray  



Golden Hours Games for Groups, Thomas Moloney, Russell House Publishing,  2003,

  ISBN 1-903855-25-X  12.50 

As the subtitle explains, this is a book of games intended to be played by groups.  There are 140 games in all, each with: an indication of the purpose; details of the level of activity, age and venue suitability; materials needed; group size; the procedure clearly set out in steps; and some notes as a way of sharing the authors experiences with that game.  There are also illustrations drawn by the author. 

The Foreword explains the layout and contains sensible reminders about preparing thoroughly, being an enthusiastic and confident master-of-ceremonies but also taking part, and not playing the same game for too long. 

The specific game descriptions include tips for safety in physically active games, and suggestions for keeping players in the game when they might otherwise be eliminated. 

The objectives given cover a wide range, including warm-ups, awareness building, group interaction, teamwork, mental aerobics, physical action and fun!  The games themselves range from quiet to highly active; some will run in classrooms while others need to be outside; many suit all age groups and any group size; and most need little in the way of materials or special equipment. 

Although at first glance this book appears aimed at school teachers, many of the games can also be used by organisational trainers.  For instance, one game in the book called Elephant, Tree, Cow has been used by me with groups of quite senior managers (albeit that I knew it as Elephants & Giraffes maybe children can cope with one more option than managers!).  This game involves pointing at someone and calling out one of the options, at which point three people must take on previously specified physical characteristics such as being the trunk and  two branches slowest to move gets eliminated or takes a turn in the middle as caller. 

There are several games with materials provided for copying, such as word games (B JACK OX), category lists (rivers, fruit and players must name items within category), tongue twisters (she said she should sit), mission examples (find out who have bicycles), and observation tests (what colour were your partners eyes?). 

So, a plethora of games that can be used by teachers, youth leaders and the like on an ongoing basis and by organisational trainers as a source of activities on occasions when they need to liven up a group of grown-ups.

Julie Hay


Coaching Made Easy, Mike Leibling & Robin Prior,  Kogan Page, 2003, Price 15.05

ISBN: 0-7494-3953-X)

This is one of those books that I wish Id written myself!  The authors say they developed the material with their clients, colleagues and coaches and it shows by being eminently readable, practical and full of nuggets.  There are so many books available nowadays on coaching; this one is a must-have. 

It is set out in three sections:  Part 1 introduces coaching; Part 2 covers the authors ABC Technique; Part 3 is about you as a coach.  Parts 1 and 3 are fairly short so that Part 2 is the major component and is then divided into an introduction to the technique, some real-life examples, a section on how to use Steps A, B and C, a long section on the thinking behind the technique and an analysis of the structure and steps. 

The book begins with a short introduction that provides a very brief history of coaching and sets the context.  Although I couldnt find a definition of coaching as such, the authors comment that . more people find themselves responsible for developing the skills and competencies of those working for and around them and that Retaining and developing staff will be impossible without relevant facilitated learning taking place.  They go on to refer to the latter sentence as being coaching at its best as a cost-effective, efficient way of supporting peoples development and growth. 

The ABC Technique consists of three steps: 

Step A -           Understanding the situation

Step B -           Understanding what could be better

Step C -           Understanding how it could be better 

The technique can be completed in 30 minutes, although clients may be advised to sleep on it between steps.  It uses a defined set of questions, which are listed (with explanations) in the book; the authors recommend that the coach answers these themselves before using them with clients. 

Many of the best nuggets for me appear in the section on the thinking behind the technique. 

Examples include: 

        the Saggy Shoulders Syndrome

        the Salami effect you keep taking little bits and suddenly realise its nearly all gone

        values are hard-wired, below the neck - while beliefs are soft-wired, above the neck, and changeable

        Tommy Cooper telling the doctor that his arm hurts whenever he lifts it and the doctor simply telling him to stop lifting it

        whats the point of running if youre on the wrong track?

        too many hows spoil the what 

This book also contains some excellent, jargon-free descriptions of how to apply NLP concepts in coaching, including: strategies, neurological levels, using the past tense, several meta programs (away from or towards, small or large chunk size, convincer strategies, internally or externally referenced), sensory preferences, matching and pacing, and using metaphors.  There are also some aspects that I recognise from transactional analysis, such as a story that Eric Berne told in the 1960s about two brothers being scripted to end up in a psychiatric hospital one did as a patient but the other did as a doctor. 

Finally, the book ends with what the authors call the Ten Great Coaching Questions, such as Help me to understand .?; What would be a good question for me to ask right now?; Because ?; and What have you achieved, that you might not have been aware of at the time?. 

The only complaint I had is that the authors reproduce the steps and questions 5 times in: the overview, the case studies, the using it section, the how it works section (twice!) and partly also in the coaching at work section.  Although this may have helped with recall, I did wonder if it might have been more effectively structured if some of these had been combined. 

That said, the content is so useful and the writing style so accessible that I strongly recommend this book whether or not you are already familiar with the concepts Ive quoted.  If they are new to you, find out how helpful they can be.  If you already know the concepts, you will still find it useful in terms of how to apply them within the overall ABC structure.

Julie Hay


Language Evolution, Morten H. Christiansen and Simon Kirby (Editors), Published by Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0199244847, 395 pages, paperback, Price 17.99.

This is not a book to be read at a single sitting.  Nor, indeed, at several sittings.  It is a book to be savoured like a good wine.  To carry the analogy further, the reader can enjoy the nose, the bouquet, the first glorious sip, the swirl, the swill, the swallow.  And finally the aftertaste.  But, unlike the wine, there is no need to buy another bottle - or another copy in this case.  The reader can return to it again and again, to ever fresher delights.

Which is as well, I suppose, for a book intended for "researchers and students working in the area covered" as the back cover blurb has it.  Except that that makes it sound somewhat dull . . . a bit like hard work; when, if the truth be known, it is light and airy, yet contradictorily comprehensive and solid, and can be opened at any page whereupon you may be as lost as Keats on first discovering Chapman's Homer.

Or at least, this will be the experience of readers such as myself, who find the whole field of language and linguistics absolutely fascinating anyway.  And, if you don't, perhaps you have no right or reason to open its pages in the first place!

And yet . . . even if this were not the type of book you habitually read, have you never asked yourself the questions: How did language start?  Where did it come from?  Why do we not all speak the same language?  Did it evolve along the same lines as Darwin's Origin of the Species?  If so, why are there no animal languages that resemble human language?   These questions are actually far too simplistic and, although they are dealt with between the book's covers, they do scant justice to the wealth of didactic talent to be found in the ranks of its contributing authors.

Let us spare a glance at the contributors.  There are more than 20 of them.  Far too many to be dealt with at length in a short review, so I will content myself with saying that each is an expert in his or her specific field, and the fields include: archaeology, anthropology, biochemistry, biology, mathematics, physics, psychology, cognitive and evolutionary neuroscience, philosophy, and several branches of linguistics.  And each approaches the subject of the evolution of language from their particular discipline.

The fact is that there is no one theory of language evolution . . . there are divergent theories, although there are common grounds of belief amongst all the theorists.  But, to expand on the simplistic questions asked above: Is transmission of language cultural rather than genetic?  Should the transition from animal to human communication systems be viewed as gradual rather than principal?  Is it universally agreed that the emergence of human language is one of the major transitions in evolution?  How do evolutionary and learning processes interact?   Under what circumstances would one expect an innate universal grammar to arise?

A few different type questions: Does thought depend on language?  How does language contribute to intelligence?  Does language serve us, or do we serve language?  What part does spatio-temporal organisation play in the evolution of communication?

These are only a miniscule part of the questions that are addressed in the book, and merely those that I have collected by "dipping".  The questions are beguiling; the answers are bewitching.  I must think about writing another review when I have thoroughly absorbed the book.  Contact me again in a year's time!  Although I may still be too busy reading (re-reading?) it to want to write about it.

In the beginning there was no language.  Now there is.  Language Evolution describes the passage as a wonderful voyage of discovery.

Joe Sinclair

British Politics, in the Oxford University Press Very Short Introduction series. By Tony Wright MP
ISBN: 0-19-285459-3.  125 pages. Numerous halftones and line drawings. Price: 6.99 (Paperback)

You might think that A Very Short Introduction to anything would be pretty superficial - yet another symptom of our dumbed-down culture, our sound-bite society, our inability to spend more than a nano-second on anything more taxing than the latest edition of Big Brother.  It would seem to belong in the company of television history the kind that not only has music constantly playing at a volume clearly intended to drown out the presenters words but also has people dressed up in costume pretending to be Saxon villagers or medieval knights because the British public is now deemed to be too stupid to understand anything that is not visually interpreted.

On the other hand, you might also think that if the subject was British Politics, superficial would be a jolly good thing, too.  So it was with somewhat mixed feeling that I approached Tony Wrights contribution which is number 92 in the growing list of Very Short Introductions from OUP my first taste of the series. 

What I quickly discovered, however, is that short and superficial are not necessarily synonymous.  It is a wonderfully small book some one hundred pages of a readable-sized print and it fits perfectly into an average-sized handbag. But it doesnt read like a small book in fact quite the opposite.  The pace seems leisurely, the text erudite.

Wrights method is dialectical.  He raises question after question: What is British? Is our system really as simple as it looks from outside?  Have we got a constitution?  What is strong government? Are there balances to the power of the executive? and so on.   But the text is far from dry.  Wrights personal anecdotes such as the one about his concocting a question on milk-floats to test out the system of written questions to ministers are extremely entertaining. There are also interesting, amusing and sometimes thought-provoking reproductions of photographs (theres a wonderful pair of photos captioned Atlee and Thatcher: making and unmaking the post-war settlement) and political cartoons to enliven the text and a wide use of quotations gives it weight. 

All in all an extremely intelligent, useful and entertaining little book and Im glad Ive read it.    

Melissa Biro



Brief Gestalt Therapy, by Gaie Houston, Sage Publications 2003, 154 pp, 16.99 (paperback) 60.00 (cloth)   ISBN 0-7619-7348-6.

This book is one of a series on different approaches to Brief Counselling: Solution-Focused, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Transactional Analysis and Cognitive Behavioural, often available as one-to-one therapy or in groups; and gives a good account of itself in describing Gestalt approaches.  But there are really two books here. 

The first, in the very readable middle chapters, describes how the therapist can plan and initiate brief treatment for clients, giving examples of the paperwork which the author has found to be helpful [brief counselling involves much more work by the therapist than does traditional psycho-dynamic approach].  Different techniques are described for involving the client in learning-ful experiments, for dealing with the approaching end of the brief counselling sessions, even for the kind of issues which the therapist can usefully raise in subsequent supervision. Illustrative extracts are given of actual sessions [culled from a number of cases, in order to preserve anonymity] of both individual and group therapy.  

Practical advice is given to therapists about dilemmas when clients are referred, and whose treatment is paid for, by third parties such as employers or primary care trusts.  Indeed, the author argues for these that brief therapy in groups is both more  economic and more effective  than individual sessions. 

The beginning and last chapters will interest those curious about the credentials of brief therapy and of Gestalt therapy vis--vis more traditional approaches, and is slower reading she speaks of jargon (professional insider language).  References are made to a wide range of sources, from early Gestaltist Fritz Perls [himself a trained and practising psychoanalyst] to Martin Buber, Carl Rogers, even Zen. And the author significantly recounts the old civil servants joke I can see that it works in practice, but will it hold up in theory?"  Urging that there should be more research, she points out that absence of evidence does not necessarily mean lack of effectiveness.  It does mean lack of academic and economic power. 

Mike Baynes 




Whispering in the Wind by Carmen Bostic St. Clare and John Grinder,  Published by Bostic/Grinder, 2001, 381 pages, ISBN 0-9717223-0-7

This book retails at over 30.00. and in paperback it will only appeal to NLP aficionados. Its printed throughout in a bold sans serif font, so it does no favours to the readers eyes. Alternating between the narrative of Grinders personal history and the subtle intricacies of transformational and cognitive grammar it seems idiosyncratic to the point of egocentricity. It challenges many hitherto accepted leaders in the field of NLP: Dilts, DeLozier, Hall, Robbie and others.  Its style is contentious. It culminates in the publishing of the settlement between Bandler and others, against Grinder and Bostic concerning the ownership of NLP. 

The book starts by outlining the epistemology of NLP. The familiar universal modelling processes, (generalization, distortion and deletion), are shown to all be deletions brought about either through neurology, or as a result of the effects of conditioning upon linguistic filters.  

Mind and body are revealed as one and the same as the authors propose scientific activity to be: an acceptance of the responsibility of public presentation; the reporting of conclusions and experimental procedures, allowing other researchers the ability to test these, through systematic observation, and reporting in publicly available standard formats. All this is set in juxtaposition to religion and the final internment of the nominalization truth. 

NLP Modeling and Application or Design are discussed. The difference may be understood as similar to that of medical research and clinical practice, or physics and engineering design. 

Three categorisations of NLP are proposed NLP modelling; NLP application; and NLP training . NLP modeling is defined as the study of excellence. 

The authors propose a way of conducting NLP modeling research, which rejects the probablistic categories and quantitative statistics beloved by psychological researchers. Whilst statisticians will hate these ideas, they make perfect sense as a means of bootstrapping knowledge to greater levels of usefulness. The key is in finding counterexamples and examining how each differs specifically at a process level from the general findings. For example in the case of those taught the NLP spelling strategy, the application of the strategy of those who remain poor spellers needs review; whilst those in a control group who spell well, must be examined to determine if they are natural spellers using the NLP strategy, even without being taught. 

Grinder also gives his account of the beginnings of NLP. This starts by describing the characteristics of Bandler and Grinder as: arrogant, curious, unimpressed by authority or tradition, a well-defined sense of personal responsibility, an aversion to boredom, self-confident, playful, able to act As If, and appreciative of the difference between content and form. 

A humorous account of how Grinder was elected to telephone the hypnotist/psychiatrist Milton Erickson and hypnotically induce Erickson to see him and Bandler ahead of Ericksons schedule is revealing. Bandler was apparently confined to the bathroom during Grinders phone call, and had to chew on the bathroom towel in order to avoid cracking up and spoiling Grinders performance. 

The authors differentiate NLP to other types of change work in four ways. Firstly, NLP explicitly operates on the individuals mental maps, rather than any real experiences. Secondly, and following from this, memory is seen as reconstruction, and so archaeology of the individuals mind is not taken to be part of NLP. Thirdly, consciousness is accorded a limited role in any change process. It can only be justified if one of the goals of change is to enable a client to be able to talk about their problems and challenges. In other words if the goal of the intervention is change other than the ability to articulate problems then the work may best be left to the wisdom of the unconscious. Fourthly, neither the agent of change nor the client is required to believe any set of assumptions to utilise NLP patterning. 

Having laid out these differentiators the authors then proceed to argue that the familiar Presumptions of NLP are either unnecessary, or in need of revision. 

Grinder describes how in order to make a presentation during which he was suffering from walking pneumonia he made a deal with his unconscious that was to become the basis of Six-step Reframing. The authors call this the breakthrough pattern since it is the unconscious that is called upon to decide what, (if any), patterns need will be changed and also in what ways. The client is not required to be aware of these. 

As Grinder writes: the unconscious is capable of enormously complex and creative acts when the proper framing and context have been established and the lead is released to the unconscious. 

The authors contrast the responsibilities apportioned to the clients unconscious in the Classic Code NLP, by reference to anchoring; and New Code NLP by reference to Six Step Reframing. This analysis is detailed and once assimilated enables readers to achieve greater personal rapport with unconscious processes, and thus be better placed to enjoy life and operate creatively. 

The New Code is a simplified pattern, which helps those with little or no training in NLP to generate change. Central to the New Code is the assumption that performance in the world is a function of physiological state. Changing ones breathing pattern constitutes simplest means of altering state. Since mind and body are conceptualised, as one phenomenon changing ones physiology is the equivalent of changing ones mind. 

The New Code differs from the Classic Code because the unconscious is explicitly assigned the responsibility for the selection of the desired state, the resource, or new behaviours. It is explicitly involved in all critical steps. The new behaviour(s) must satisfy the original positive intention(s) of the behaviour(s) to be changed. The manipulation (of the clients mental map) occurs at the level of state as opposed at the level of behaviour. 

Central to the New Code is an open mindedness aptly termed the Know Nothing State. In this state conscious filters are suspended either whilst assimilating a new pattern as in NLP modeling or when engaged in a high performance state as in NLP application.  

In order to create new high performance states the subject is invited to play various New Code Games, which have no apparent connection to the behaviour or pattern to be changed. Ways in which such procedures may be used with children are explained. 

Multiple Perceptual Positions play a major part of The New Code. The most privileged of these is the so-called Triple Description. The equivalents of first, second and third person in English grammar are called positions. Once again the application of how these positions are useful is illustrated. 

The final part of the book concerns the future of NLP. It is composed of three chapters. The first of these concerns itself with the tension between the economies of NLP modeling and requirements of NLP training. It elucidates the differences between linear and hierarchical ordering and critiques Robert Dilts Neuro-Logical Levels before explaining the differences between Logical Levels and Logical Types within New Code NLP. This usage differs from that originally postulated by Whitehead and Russell in Principia Mathematica (1913). 

Within the New Code the term Logical Level may be understood as: Where two or more elements in a hierarchy, (such as an organization) the element which includes the others will be considered as a higher logical level. For example an employer is at a higher logical level than those employed. Logical Type is now redefined as nominalizations whose characteristics are essential from the viewpoint of a classifying agent. For example apples and pears may be considered the same logical type from the perspective of a government bureaucrat, but of different logical types from the viewpoint of a chef. A logical type then cannot be differentiated from the context in which it has been classified. 

This leads to the criticism of Robert Dilts concept of Neuro-logical Levels, since this hierarchical arrangement falls neither into the category of logical inclusion, as in the example of a business organization above; nor does it accord with that of part/whole relationships. For example can the environment be considered a part of behaviour? Bostic and Grinder argue that it is absurd to think so, yet in its widest sense, and in the light of the increasing effects of pollution, I wonder if their argument is sensible? 

A chapter is devoted to three key issues in NLP: Sorting functions; chunking and logical levels, form and substance process and content. Sorting functions returns to the theme of 1st and 2nd Order Change, as defined within NLP application. 1st Order Changes are said to be unbounded whilst 2nd Order Changes are bounded. These are determined in the following way. 2nd Order changes consist of: addictions, (drugs, alcohol, tobacco, co-dependencies); physical symptoms; and behaviours that have associated secondary gains or payoffs. Anything remaining is considered as 1st Order Change. The authors acknowledge these descriptors to be unfortunate as they do not accord to the common usage of 1st and 2nd Order Change in other disciplines such as mathematics, (or indeed family therapy). 

But why, do the authors persist in using the terms 1st and 2nd order change in ways so different from how they are commonly understood in the fields of mathematics, philosophy and family therapy? Surely with a New Code this was the opportunity to differentiate the phenomena that they refer to with new NLP terms that will not add more confusion to the world through duplication? 

Bostic and Grinder hold firmly the ideal: Interventions in change work will be selected to effect change at precisely the level of representation at which the representation of the experience to be changed is coded: the most fundamental distinctions being primary experience or secondary experience, (the mental maps resulting from cultural/linguistic coding). 

So, in order for someone to change it is only necessary that they understand how they have been assisted if the original coding of their problem exists at the cultural/linguistic level. 

Their argument is compelling, however NLP practitioners must also be cautioned that such a model comes close, if not within, the accepted definition of Strategic Therapy. Such Therapy is not currently fashionable and many outside of NLP consider it to be questionable. 

There is a useful section on "Form and Substance: Process and Content".  Substance is the stuff out of which physical objects are composed.  It informs what may be possible.  Form refers to the shape or organisation that informs or makes the substance involved what it is.  In linguistics this distinction reduces to nouns and verbs. 

So nouns are the substance of language, and verbs its processes. In the Meta Model when encountering unspecified nouns we ask: Which --- specifically; and when encountering unspecified verbs we ask: How --- specifically. 

Recognizing and applying this distinction constitutes the essential difference between NLP and most other change technologies. NLPs power rests on the practitioners ability to make the process/content distinction and leave the content entirely to the client whilst manipulating the process. 

The final chapter of the book are the authors recommendations to the NLP community. The intention, they claim, is to provoke a professional high quality public dialogue among the practitioners of NLP. The aim is to improve the practice in NLP. In order to achieve this the authors propose a reorientation toward the core activity of NLP the modelling of excellence. Central to this focus is the definition of NLP as the study of the differences that make a difference between consistent high performance of genius in a field of human endeavour and the average performer in the same field. 

Having attended workshops conducted by John Grinder I hold his training in the highest regard. I probably have spent more time with Whispering in the Wind than any other book this year. There is a lot of wisdom and knowledge within its covers, and for any seriously committed NLP Practitioner it is essential reading. But be warned; from time to time the authors refer to native speakers of American English. This American English I think must be the language in which the book is written, and at times this required translation, which was for me a matter of some regret. 

Stephen J.M. Bray




Stephen Bray's career spans thirty years, beginning in social work and encompassing Adult Education, Business Consulting, Counselling, Journalism, Photography and Psychotherapy.  He is a consultant editor for Nurturing Potential.

Julie Hay is an internationally-accredited trainer in both NLP and transactional analysis, specialising in developmental applications rather than psychotherapy. 

John Ewing is a Systems Engineer who has worked in various domains ranging from implantable cardiac devices to the measurement of low-intensity radioactive emissions.  He currently runs his own company in Alsace, France.

Joe Sinclair is a writer, editor, publisher, and non-executive director of a shipping line - amongst other activities - one of which is the publishing of Nurturing Potential.

Mark Edwards was a head teacher, who still teaches part-time but combines this with writing articles, educational consultancy and entertaining people who like to hear badly performed rock, pop and music hall classics.

Melissa Biro is a sometime lecturer in English and a career counsellor who does occasional tutoring.  She is also an ex-networker, a would-be scriptwriter, and a part-time training consultant.

Mike Baynes discovered groups in the early '70s when he joined Group Relations Training Association.  He has been exploring most of the byways of this movement ever since:  from OD to Gestalt, studying counselling on the way.